Argued: March 21, 2017
from the United States District Court for the Eastern
District of Virginia, at Alexandria. T. S. Ellis, III, Senior
District Judge. (1:15-cv-00222-TSE-MSN)
Matthew B. Kaplan, THE KAPLAN LAW FIRM PLLC, Arlington,
Virginia, for Appellant.
Catherine Crawford, UNITED STATES EQUAL EMPLOYMENT
OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION, Washington, D.C., for Amicus Curiae.
David Barmak, MINTZ, LEVIN, COHN, FERRIS, GLOVSKY AND POPEO,
P.C., Washington, D.C., for Appellees.
Corkery, Christine Tschiderer, WASHINGTON LAWYERS'
COMMITTEE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS AND URBAN AFFAIRS, Washington,
D.C., for Appellant.
M. Ray, MINTZ, LEVIN, COHN, FERRIS, GLOVSKY AND POPEO, P.C.,
Washington, D.C., for Appellees.
Stephen Z. Chertkof, HELLER, HURON, CHERTKOF & SALZMAN,
PLLC, Washington, D.C.; Erik D. Snyder, PASSMAN & KAPLAN,
P.C., Washington, D.C.; Alan R. Kabat, BERNABEI & KABAT,
PLLC, Washington, D.C., for Amicus Metropolitan Washington
Employment Lawyers Association. P. David Lopez, General
Counsel, Jennifer S. Goldstein, Associate General Counsel,
Lorraine C. Davis, Assistant General Counsel, Anne W. King,
Office of General Counsel, UNITED STATES EQUAL EMPLOYMENT
OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION, Washington, D.C., for Amicus United
States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
MOTZ, TRAXLER, and AGEE, Circuit Judges.
TRAXLER, Circuit Judge:
Villa appeals a district court order granting summary
judgment against her in her Title VII retaliation case
against CavaMezze Grill, LLC, and CavaMezze Grill Mosaic, LLC
(together, "Cava" or "the employer").
Finding no error, we affirm.
Grill, LLC ("CMG") is a Maryland limited-liability
company and the parent company of several restaurants, each
of which is owned and operated by a wholly owned subsidiary
of CMG. CavaMezze Grill Mosaic, LLC ("Mosaic") is a
Virginia limited-liability company and wholly owned
subsidiary of CMG that owns and operates the Cava Mezze Grill
restaurant located in Merrifield, Virginia.
Gresham was CMG's Director of Operations and oversaw the
operations of each restaurant, including the Merrifield
restaurant. Sergio Valdivia was Cava's Area Manager and
managed a total of five restaurants, including the Merrifield
began working at Cava in the spring of 2012. In October 2013,
she was a low-level manager for Mosaic, and she reported